This course examines indigenous North America from pre-European contact through the mid-19th Century. It focuses on the history of indigenous peoples and nations within the present-day boundaries of the United States and Canada (Turtle Land). Emphasis will be placed on appreciating the diversity of traditions and pasts experienced by the many nations of Turtle Island and to work against monolithic treatments of this topic. This course will proceed chronologically from the contact period through the establishment of European colonies and settlements to consider especially how native peoples responded to these developments. Themes include cross-cultural collaborations across linguistic and spatial divides, the clash between settler and indigenous economies, political and religious systems and the relationship native peoples developed with other racialized groups. Special attention will be paid to the complex relationship native peoples have had with European forms of Christianity over time.